The museum building has two floors as well as an outdoor sculpture garden. On the first is a large collection of funerary busts, mosaics, as well as a special section for gold and jewelry, pottery and glass works. The second floor displays examples of traditional arts unique to Palmyra as well as those of the Bedouin from the area. There is also a special section for mummies.
The museum’s first floor comprises eight main exhibits with six halls numbered from one to six plus two corridors known as the eastern and the western corridor, respectively.
The museum’s second floor comprises four main halls: the Palmyra mummification hall, the Qaser Al Heir hall, the hall for Palmyrene traditional and contemporary costumes and jewelry and the fourth showcasing a Palmyrene house.
The items in the museum garden have no special classification and most of them carry no identifying tags, except for the few that flank the front entrance.